Transition over the last two decades to more open politics and markets generated pressures for administrative change. Administrative reform in Mexico made little headway in the 1990s. Arellano and Guerrero argue that the key obstacle to bureaucratic modernization (particularly of the Weberian variety) was the close hostorical fusion between policial and the administrative elite. Mexican reformers opted for the superficial manaferial reform as a way to improve efficency without upsetting one of the cornerstones of the PRI-Dominated regime. The chapter provides an overview of Mexico’s public administration, a thorogh survey of recent reform initiatives, and a detailed case study of the failed attempt to creat a career civil service in the late 1990s