The combined effects of the changing dynamic between business, the state, and civil society has been the emergence of “voluntary” codes of business ethics, social and evironmental commitments, and a wide range of social and evironmnetla non-statutory standards wich companies are using. Social and ethical accounting, auditing and reporting has emerged during the nineties as a new realm of tools for simoultaneously increasing civil accountability and legitimacy, and strengthening the ability of companies to effectively manage and navigate through complex anvironments.